(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Pennsylvania Museum Bulletin. Number 40, October 1912"

BULLETINOFTHE 

PEMSffi/ANlA tiJSElM 




FUBUSHED QIMIERIYBYTHEFENNSfLYANR 
MUSEUM AND SCKGDL or ipUSIKJAL ARJ 

MEMQKIALHAIL EMRWoUNT E\RJC PHPIELPHl^ 

SUBSCKIETION QNLDOIXAIV OCTOBER, 1912 



Kiucred. August 27, 1903. at F'liiladelphia. Pa., as .'Second-Class Mailer, under Act of Cougre.'ss of July 16. 1894 



P E N N S Y LVA NIA MUSEUM 

AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 

3BoavD of ^Trustees 

The Governor of the State, Ex-Of. The Mayor of the City, Ex-Of. 

Charles Bond Mrs. John Harrison Theodore C. Search 

James Buttervvorth Thomas Skelton Harrison Edgar V. Seei.er 

John G. Carruth John Story Jenks G. Henry Stetson 

Charles E. Dana John H. McFauden Edward T. Stotesbury 

Thomas Dolan John D. McIlhexxy Jones Wister 

Harringtox Fitzgerald John T. Morris William Wood 

Ciiaki.es H. IIakiii.ng John W. Pepper 

©fficcrs 

THEODORE C. SE.\RCH, President 

JOHN STORY JENKS, ) ,,. „ .^ 

> i ice-l residents 
JOHN G. CARRUTH, ) 

JAMES BUTTERWORTH, Treasurer 

EDWIN ATLEE BARBER, Secretary 

LESLIE W. MILLER, Principal of the School 



EDWIN ATLEE BARBER. Editor 



Bulletin 

jfor ©ctober IRineteen Hun^re^ ant» ^Twelve 
CONTENTS 

P.^GK 

OKI Interiiir from the Au.strian TjtoI, by 

Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson . . . . . . . 51 

So-called I?ow-PuIIers, by 

Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson . . . . . . . 53 

American Iron Work of the 18th Centurs', b\- 

Edwin A. Barber ........ 59 

.Stoneware of ICastern Germany ....... 63 

Notes 64 

List of Acces.sions ......... 66 



k^'*^ 



D-r? I 



iCI 



BQIalieGID 

OF CRe 

October, 1912 Number 40 

TENTH YEAR 



AN OLD INTERIOR FROM THE AUSTRIAN TYROL 

B)' purchase, the Museum has acquired the curious wall paintings of a 
room once in the cottage of a well-to-do Tyrolese peasant resident of the Ziller 
\'alle_v. On one of these panels — which, as well as the fifth panel in the series, 
obviously is either a restoration or a substitute for an older original panel — is 
an inscription bearing date 183 1. The Colli Brothers of Innsbruck, through 
whom the room was obtained, state that such restorations are not uncommon, 
and claim that the original panels go back to 1780 or 1790. The Director of the 
Innsbruck Museum, Karl von Radinger, who has specialized in Tyrolese art, 
agrees with the dealer that the original panels are older and go back at least to 
the time of Napoleon I, or 1800. He avers that it is of common occurrence to 
find such restorations of earlier work, and mentions certain pieces in the Inns- 
bruck collection in which the new owners of such furniture, when this changed 
hands, caused it to be restored and to have the date of this event added. He 
also states that there are pieces in his museum on which the restoration in size- 
colors having peeled, the original painting has shown beneath. 

With regard to the recent acquisition of the Pennsylvania Museum, the 
same authorit}- states it to be his belief that it was restored by the painter Mader 
of Halle, who retotiched mainly the ornamental parts : and he very freely stakes 
his reputation as an expert that judging from the costumes worn by the figures 
and by the houses depicted : "It is inconceivable that they were done after the 
time of Napoleon". He declares that the exhibit should be labeled without 
hesitation as of a date "prior to 1800". 

Be this as it inay, the paneling is extremely curious. It consists of fifteen 
large panels five feet eleven inches high and varying from one foot nine inches 
to two feet eleven inches in width. In addition to these, the series includes a 
door and six additional small panels used to make up the wall where windows 
and doors occur ; besides there are fittings, borders, etc. 



52 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



A ceiling of modern workmanship, made in imitation of the old work to 
correspond with the original walls, was provided by the Colli Brothers and has 
enabled those in charge to reconstruct the room in its entirety. It has been 

suggested that this room may have been 
an artist's studio, but the exiguity of the 
room — twelve feet by eight feet — and 
especially of the windows which admit 
little light, makes this seem improbable. 
The panels represent scenes of the 
Tvrolese peasant's life and of his religion. 
The colors are vivid and are painted on 
a dull yellow or mustard ground-work. 
None of the work can lay claim to high 
art, but the whole is higbly characteristic 
of the people, and there is considerable 
action in the drawing of the figures of 
men and animals. Some of the attitudes 
betray a lurking sense of humor in the 
artist's observation of nature and human 
life as he saw it. It would appear tbat 
such paneling is not only typical of the 
taste of the people, but is extremely rare, 
and. if not unique, would be difficult to 
duplicate. Such is the opinion of Privy 
Councilor Professor Wieser, who saw the 
panels before they were secured by the 
]\Iuseum, and also of the above quoted 
Director of the Innsbruck Museum, who 
was consulted before the series was ac- 
quired. 

The paneling was taken from an old 
wooden house or cottage which stands in 
the Ziller Valley near Kattenbach in 
Tyrol, about two thousand five hundred 
feet up the mountain. The house is 
known as "Riedheim". Professor Dr. 
Haberland of the \'ienna Museum was 
impressed by it and is said to have cov- 
eted it. At this time, however, the Penn- 
sylvania Museum had an option on it. 

The main interest of such a series of 
crude decorative motives lies in the repro- 
duction they present of the manners, cus- 
toms, dress and mode of thought of a somewhat isolated mountain comnnuiitv. 
The costumes, notably the hats and long coats, the implements found in tlie 
hands of the workmen, show the scenes to belong to the workada\' life of a cen- 
tur}- ago. The architectural forms depicted are in accord with this estimate. 




"'-'m 




FIRST ORIGINAL PANEL 
The Annunciation 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYL\"ANL\ MUSEUM 



53 



Through the period of the French Revokition and the Napoleonic wars, the 
region suffered much and its inhabitants became too poor to waste time on 
artistic adornment and the native art to a large extent disappeared. 

The general scheme of the decoration 
on the panels is in three zones or sections, 
the topmost of which is 26 inches, vary- 
ing to 22, and even 20, inches in width, 
painted on mustard yellow ground with 
rose trees, the spreading branches of 
which form a sort of background, broken 
upon by two or three medallions enclos- 
ing religious scenes. Below these, form- 
ing a ground plan to this zone, are secular 
scenes of local rural life. 

The middle zone is only about 14 
inches wide and is devoted to an e.xposi- 
tion of the life of Christ. Beginning 
with the first panel to the right, on which 
is depicted the scenes of the Annuncia- 
tion and the marriage of the \'irgin, each 
panel shows some scene taken from the 
Gospel, imtil after the eye has followed 
the series around the room as it ap- 
proaches the left corner, it meets with the 
scenes of the Passion, Crucifixion and 
Ascension. The entire set of these 
scenes, with two interrupting exceptions, 
is executed under a grape-vine, the 
bunches of which are preternaturally 
large in their relation to the size of the 
human figures, and probably are intended 
to locate the historic drama in the land 
of Canaan. Of the two exceptional 
panels in the series, one is that which is 
stated by Colli Brothers and Professor 
von Radinger to have been restored. Be- 
sides bearing the inscription over the 
holy group in the scene of the Adoration 
of the Magi "Gloria In Excelsis Deo". — • 
it also bears under the upper section the 
legend : 

"Kein Stand ist aufgenomen Lehret 
der H. Chriisostomus, aber diese welche 
die Hollische peynen stats betrachten, und vor Augen haben werden nicht 
darein fallen 1 83 1," 

which relates to the legend of S. Chrysostome represented to the left of the 
picture. The saint is seated; with him an angel is showing to the faithful the 




SECOND ORIGINAL PANEL 
The Nativity 



54 



BULLETIN OF THE PEXXSYLVANL\ :MUSEUM 



narrow, winding path to heaven and eternal bhss, while on the right stands 
open the fiery month of the dragon of Hell, and devils who lead to it sinners 
quaintly represented in their act of shortcomings, in a sort of danse macabre. 

It seems obvious that in the restora- 
tion little attention was paid to the origi- 
nal, if indeed the panels in question do 
not belong to another series. Both panel 
Xo. 2 and the lower part of panel Xo. 5 
are undoubtedly by the same hand. In 
the latter we have — entirely out of the 
Gospel sequence which it interrupts — the 
scene of the last judgment. Christ is 
seated above on a rainbow and sur- 
rcTunded by flying angels, many of whom 
quaintlv carry tools of the carpenter's 
trade, while others sound the trumpet 
blast. Below, the graves are giving up 
their dead : and the just are being called 
to Heaven and the wicked to Hell — 
which again, as in No. 2, is represented 
by the open fiery mouth of a dragon. 
Ijeing fed by devils. Moreover, in color- 
ing and execution, the work is strikingly 
different from the rest of the room. 
However this may be, the lower register 
or zone in all the original panels — but as 
has been seen, not in these two — is given 
over to scenes of workaday life. Houses, 
men and women working or tending 
their flocks, or shooting at targets or 
walking in their gardens. 

The paintings on the door, the 
groundwork of which is dull blue with 
dull red mouldings, present the same 
general mode of thought. The board 
running above the upper panel is covered 
with a strip of canvas painted with relig- 
ious figures. At both ends, however, two 
Austrian soldiers stand at attention. A 
restoration has been made of panels Xo. 
II and 14 by the same process of stretch- 
ing a painted canvas over the damaged 
panel. The panels of the door them- 
selves are decorated with flower pots of roses between trees with here a stag. 
there a bird or a man to enliven the scene, while the division between the upper 
and the lower panels is decorated with a Madonna and Child, a St. George and 
the Dragon, and another mythical equestrian figure. 




THIRD PANEL, RESTORATION 

of 1831 

Adoration of Magi 






BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLA'ANIA MUSEUM 



DO 



A narrow frieze of dull blue and red runs along the top of the room above 
the panels, finished above and below with mouldings of red and blue. It is 
decorated with garlands of flowers, running deer and chamois. The washboard, 
sills, and other finish are likewise blue and red. The ceiling is divided into 
thirty-two sections or panels, divided by mouldings of red and blue, decorated 
with geometric outlines in the centre and flowers in the four corners of each 
panel. While the ceiling and all mouldings are modern, thev are exact repro- 
ductions of the original finish of such buildings. 

In setting up the room in the Museum, care has been taken, in making such 
adaptations as were necessary, to adhere to the general character of the panel- 
ing. The outer casing of the room has been stained to correspond with the 
background of the paneling, and the dull blue trimmings of doors and windows 
recall the interior where such facings occur. 

It is intended to furnish the room with Tyrolese furniture of the same 
style and period used bv the peasants and characteristic of the people. 

S. Y. S. 



SO-CALLED BO\^-PULLERS 

In the Hammer Collection of the Pennsylvania Museum are one perfect 
Ijronze object and two fragments of similar objects of which examples in other 
museums are labeled "bow-pullers". They are implements, varying in size and 
workmanship, in the form of two rings springing from a solid center from 
which rise a cluster of three or four spikes : l-'urtwangler figures one with five 
spikes. '1^ Usually the rings turn slightlv upward so that the base of the object 
made to stand on a flat surface is not perfectly horizontal. Some specimens — 
notably one in the ]Museum of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, 
and another illustrated by Charvet, reproduced by J\Ioss — are elaborately dec- 
orated ; others are plain ; some, like the example in the Hammer Collection, 
show plainly signs of wear on the outside rims of the rings, having obviously 
been attached to some other object or surface and exposed to hard usage. This 
is confirmed by a close observation of the spikes, which frecjuently, as in our 
specimens, are bent or even broken. These objects have received attention 
from a number of scholars who have made a variety of suggestions concerning 
their use. How the idea of their being bow-pullers originated I am unaware, 
but whether under the label Bogenspanner in German, or tira archi in Italian, 
or tire d'arc in French, curators in general have followed one another to this day, 
reproducing and perpetuating an error that Prof. Morse exposed most clearly 
in his highly interesting, if negative, paper published in the transactions of the 
Essex Institute in 1894,*-' wliich was widely reproduced. In this he very 

U) And in the Zchillc Collection exhibited in Chicago, and closely examined by the 
present writer in the discharge of her dnties as member of the Jury for Ethnology, was 
one example of two. 

'3) Essex Inst. Bull, Vol. XXVI. 1894. 



56 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

clearly demonstrated, with the authority of a scholar strengthened by the expe- 
rience of an archer, that whatever the object might prove to be, it was not a 
bow-puller. He incidentally enumerated in the same paper the various sugges- 
tions advanced by scholars in their attempts to solve the riddle'-^' and closed 
with the remark : "After a greatly interrupted study of it for over seven years. 
I reluctantly yield the solving of the enigma to others, having got no nearer an 
explanation of it than when I first began, contented, however, with the convic- 
tion that the usual attribution assigned to it has been disproved." This ch.al- 




SO-CALLED "BOW-PULLER" 
Possibly "Mermex" of the Greeks 

lenge to all interested in the subject who had such objects under their care must 
have stimulated searchers in many museums. Certain it is that it did stimulate 
the Philadelphia group of archteologists. of whom Dr. Daniel G. Brinton was 
then a leader. At that time he was a constant visitor at the house of the present 
writer, then Secretary of the Free Museum of Science and Art of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania and the Curator of its Egypt and Mediterranean 
Section, under whose care therefore was the fine specimen from Orvieto, given 
to the Aluseum along with other objects by Francis C. Alacauley, Esq., who 
with Dr. Brinton, the writer, and a few others, were, under Provost Pepper, 
the founders of the Archaeological Association and Museum of the University. 
Many were the discussions and experiments that followed, and in the course 

(3) For instance, Cliarvet., Bull, de la Soc. Anthrop. de Lyon, i88g, p. 70, sees in it a 
sort of curl) for horses (gourmette de repression). Strobel of Parma Museum, Anelli 
gcniini prohlematica {Bulleim di Paletnologia Italiana XIV) 1888 and XV, 1889, mentions 
three theories: first, bow puller; second, for stretching cord of cross-bow (which of 
course is an impossible anachronism) ; third, a snaffle, or curb. Caylus, 1757, in Recueil 
d"Antic|uites, has no suggestion to make. Friedrichs says some regard it as a caltrop or 
tribulus, but rejects the idea owing to the bluntness of the spikes. Mr. Gushing imagined 
it might be used as a spear-thrower. Other suggestions that they be screw-drivers or 
wick-holders for lamps are too improbable for consideration. A friend of Prof. Morse 
suggested it might be worn by chariot drivers to secure hold on reins. 



BULLETIN OF THE PEXNSYL\\\NL\ MUSEUM S7 

of which it was the writer's privilege to render Dr. Brinton some slight service 
in gathering material for the paper which he published in 1897,'^' i" which, in 
the writer's opinion, the problem was solved. 

The suggestion of Prof. ]\Iorse's unknown friend that the so-called bow- 
puller was fastened in the hand of the charioteer to add to the force of his grip 
upon the reins, although unacceptable for a number of reasons, was the straw 
that gave direction to the attention of the Philadelphia guessers toward the 
caestus and its accessories. While it was unlikely that such an implement fas- 
tened in the hand should be used to the extent indicated by the number of 
surviving specimens without anv allusion to its use having survived, the sugges- 




Specimen from Orvieto decorated with Phallic Symbols, in Egypt 

and Mediterranean Section of Free Museum of Science 

and Art, University of Pennsylvania 

(FrancisC. Macauley Collection) 

tion called to mind the wrapping over the hand of the pugilists, which became 
the well-known and much quoted caestus. The present writer called to the 
attention of Dr. Brinton a fine bronze statue of a pugilist in the Naples Museum, 
represented wearing that weapon. 

There are many allusions to the caestus (Greek lAL^^S) in the Classics. 
It was used in early times. In the Iliad,*''* when Epeius and Euryalus prepare 
for boxing they put on their hands thongs of ox-hide. It would appear, how- 
ever, that tlie early caestus was not the terrible engine that it became in later 
days, when it was reinforced with knots of hard leather, lead, bronze and iron. 
The different kinds of caestus among the later Greeks were called ;u£iAixat, 
airupai, /3o€iai, ac^atpat and fjLvp/jiijKis \ of which ixeiXixai. gave the softest blows and 
the fivp/j.rjKC'i the most severe.*''* The mermex is described by Pausanias*^"' as 
made of raw ox-hide cut into thin pieces and joined in an ancient manner; 

(^) Bulletin of Free Mus. of Sc, and Art, Univ. of Penna., No. i, May. 1897. 
(5) XXIII, 684, V. 9. 
(") Smith's Antiquities. 
(-) VIII, 40, §3. 



S8 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVAXL-V MUSEUM 

it was tied under the palm of the hand, leaving the fingers bare. It added to 
the force of the blow while protecting the hand.^^^ The athletes at Olympia 
used the simple mermex for practice ; ^^' but in games they used those forms 
that dealt the hardest blow. These were covered with knots and even nails, 
and loaded with metal. A'irgil'"" speaks of: 

Ingentia septem 
Terga boum plumbo insuto ferroque rigebant. 

Slatius'-*" mentions "nigrantia plumbo tegmina". These ixipjx-qKis \vere called 
at times "limb breakers". They were of various forms, as appears on ancient 
monuments. 

The most cruel adjunct to the caestus was the ^I'p/x?;^, so called from pro- 
jections, points or spikes that characterized it. { nvpixijKia. a prominence or 
wart.) These were really weapons *^~' — "limb piercers" — and Krause was 
correct when he spoke of them as "the most terrible of weapons adapted to the 
fist".^^-'" In one of the epigrams of lAicillius, an Italian Greek of the first cen- 
tury, two lines describe the effect of the weapon as used in the arena, and cor- 
roborate in a ghastly way the identification proposed by Dr. Brinton : 

"Your head ! O Apollophanes, has become a sieve. 
From the straight and oblique holes made by the myrmekes", 

which proves beyond question that the myrmex was furnished with spikes that 
might perforate the adversary's flesh. 

A later Greek poet, Chrystodorus (A. D. 500), in describing the contests 
in the gymnasium of Byzantium, tells of a pugilistic champion as follows : "He 
grew furious, whirling in his hand the limb-piercing niermekes". Professor 
W. H. Appleton, of Swarthmore College, who furnished Dr. Brinton with the 
above quotation, pointed out that Liddell and Scott considered the passage to 
refer to the entire caestus, but he personally believed the mermex to be 
intended. It is evident that the word in the line: 

yi'iTOpoi's fivpfiij^a^ eixawero ^ep<Ti.\' tAiirfjoji' 

applies to a piercing, not a blunt instrument, such as the ac^aipai. or masses of 
lead and iron sewed (insuti) to the caestus. 

The curious unexplained objects found in all the museums of antiquities, 
and known as bow-pullers, answer all the above requirements. As. Dr. Brin- 
ton mentions in his paper on the subject, the demonstration made at the Museum 
of the University, wdien applied to an improvised caestus worn on the hand, 
was satisfactory in so far that the slight upw'ard curve of the rings, wdiich, at 

C8) Gardner & Jevoiis, Manuel of Greek Antiquities, pp. 320-1 and 272, say that in 
early times the leather wrappings tended to soften rather than harden the hlow. 

"^) Pausanias. VI, 23, §3. 

•10) Aen., V. 405. 

fii) Theo. VI, 732. 

'!■'' Haesckyius fxvpfjiyKe<i 8e tu ottAu (qimted by P.rinton, loe. cit. p. 14). Smith's 
.Antiquities, etc. ("Cestns"). 

<i:!>"Die sehrecklichste aller Faustriistungen mochte in den fxvpix-ijxe'i bestehen. 
X. .S. p. 306. He regards it as helonging to an early period. Ihid. s. 502. 



BULLETIN OF THE PEXXSYL\"ANL\ MUSEUiM 



59 



first siglit, seemed against the identification, in reality made it possible to use 
strong fastening without disturbing the tight, close rest of the solid center on 
the caestus. It may be added that the fact that so far no mermex of this type 
has been found in situ in any Graeco-Latin art work, is perfectl_v consistent with 
the nature of conditions upon which this identification rests. The mermex was 
but one of several adjuncts to the caestus. which does appear in use on the 
hand in several art works. Without the caestus it could not be used. This 
explains the apparently anomalous fact that an object so commonly found in 
warriors' burials should not be represented on any work of art so far recov- 
ered, and the number of quotations referring to it in classic literature estab- 
lishes its common use. S. Y. S. 



AMERICAN IRON >^ORK OF THE EIGHTEENTH 

CENTURY 

The collection of early American stove plates owned by the Aluseum has 
recently been increased by several rare designs, some of them not previously 
known to collectors. Janib stoves, or wall stoves, for heating, were made in 
Colonial Pennsylvania previous to the middle of the eighteenth century. They 
consisted of five plates, which were cast in open sand, forming a box which was 
set with the open end against the wall in the living room. Through this wall 
a hole communicated with the fire place in the adjoining room, usually the 
kitchen, through which hole the fuel was introduced. 




END PLATE OF JAMB STOVE 

Made by Thomas Rutter 
Colebrookdale, Pa., about 1750 



6o 



ni'LLETIN OF THE PEXXSYL\'AXIA MUSEUM 






■ y if i, ' i ip m > jw^ ' J !ff 



>C' 










/1 



f\ 








SIDE PLATE OF JAMB STOVE 
Made in Eastern Pennsylvania in 1741 



The side plates of jamb 
stoves were made with a broad 
flange, or edge, at one side, for 
insertion in the wall. These 
plates were decorated with figure 
scenes, conventional designs and 
inscriptions, which latter fre- 
quently begin on one side oi the 
stove and are continued on the 
opposite plate, sometimes also 
extending- across the end plate. 
Occasionally an inscription is 
complete on one of the plates. 

Among the earliest manu- 
facturers of cast iron stove plates 
in Pennsylvania were Thomas 
Rutter and Samuel Savage, who 
erected the Colebrookdale Fur- 
nace in 1 7 18 or a few years 
earlier. At a little later date 
James Lewis and Anthony ^lor- 
ris are believed to have been 
associated with Rutter in oper- 
ating the same furnace. In the cullcctiun in the Aluseum is one of Thomas 
Rutter's plates, bearing in relief his name and the name of the furnace. This 
probably dates back to about the middle of the eighteenth century. Another 

plate bearing Thomas Rutter's name, 
and dated 1763, was figured in the 
Bulletin, of October, 1906. 

Among the earlier dated examples 
in the ^Museum collection is one illus- 
trating the killing of Abel by Cain, 
produced at one of the numerous 
forges in the Pennsylvania-German 
district in the year 1 741. The inscrip- 
tion on this side plate, in Pennsyl- 
vania-German, tells the story, Cain 
Seiner Bniter Awel Tot Schliig. 

In the next illustration an end 
stove plate from the Warwick Fur- 
nace, near Pottstown, Pa., is shown, 
in which a portion of a German in- 
scription, which evidently extended 
around the three plates, is legible. 
The entire inscription consists of the 
Bible c^uotation "Judge not, that ye 
be not judged". The period of this 

END PLATE OF JAMB STOVE 

Made at V^afwick Furnace, near Pottstown, Pa.. 

about 1756 




BULLETIN OF THE PEXNSYLVANL\ MUSEUM 



6i 



example probably corresponds witb a side plate in tbe collection bearing the 
same decoration, and the date 1756. 

The so-called ten-plate stoves for heating and cooking appeared at a little 
later date, about 1760, and were used well into the nineteenth century. They 
were square or quadilateral boxes composed of six plates, and stood on legs 
out from the wall. In the interior was an oven, or enclosure, consisting of four 
additional plates, making ten plates in all. A door communicated with the 
baking chamber through one or both side plates. These stoves, being removed 
from the fire place or chimney, were provided with sheet iron stove pipes com- 
municatino' with the chimne\- flue. 




SIDE OF TEN-PLATE STOVE 

Made by Baron Heinnch Wtlhelm Stiegel, Manheim, Lancaster Co , Pa 

about 1770 

Watson states (vol. i, p. 218) that "The first idea of those ten-plate stoves 
was given by C. Sower, the printer, of Germantown, who had every house in 
that place supplied with his invention of "jamb-stoves", roughly cast at or near 
Lancaster. They were like the other, only having no baking chamber. Ten- 
plate stoves when first introduced, though very costly, and but rudely cast, were 
much used for kitchen and common sitting rooms. But, afterwards, when Dr. 
Franklin invented his open or Franklin stove, they found a place in every 
parlor." 

Baron Henry William Stiegel operated an iron furnace at Brickersville. 
Lancaster County, Pa., from 1757 to about the breaking out of the Revolu- 
tionary War. This he named the Elizabeth Furnace, in honor of his first wife, 
Elizabeth Huber, and it was here that some of the most artistic stove designs of 



I 



62 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANL\ ^lUSEUiM 

the period originated. One of these, bearing the date 1769, the very year in 
wliich he started his glass enterprise, is embellished with a well modeled por- 
trait bust, whether of'himself or another it has not been determined. 

In the :\Iiiseum collection is a side of a portable ten-plate stove with door 
aperture, decorated with dancing figures in high relief, cast at the Elizabeth 
Furnace about 1770. 






^^^^v:cJ^«,H^U4cm.^ 




i 



/■:-^^%\ 



SIDE OF TEN-PLATE STOVE 
Made by Valentine Eckert, Allentown, Pa., about 1789 



The Sally Ann Furnace, operated by Capt. A'alentine Eckert of the Revo- 
lutionary War, near Allentown, Pa., about 1789, is represented in the collec- 
tion by a side plate from a ten-plate stove, which is inscribed with the names 
of the proprietor and the furnace, and ornamented with the American eagle, 
and the motto "F. Pluribus Unum". E. A. B. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYL\'ANL\ J^IUSEUM 
STONE\^ARE OF EASTERN GERMANY 



63 



American collectors have jjaid but little attentiuii to the stonewares of 
Eastern Germany, in consequence of which, the few public collections in this 
country contain only examples of the wares produced in the Rhine \'alle\- and 
in Bavaria in the south. Best known to collectors are the white stoneware of 
Siegburg, of the late sixteenth century; the brown stoneware of Raeren of 
about the same period ; the gray and blue stonewares of the \\'esterwald dis- 
trict along the right (eastern) shore of the Rhine, including the Grenzhausen, 
Hoehr and Grenzau centers ; and the brown enamel painted stoneware of 
Kreussen. 




tfei«I 



BLUE ENAMELED STONEWARE TANKARDS 
Muskau. Silesia, late Seventeenth Centurv 



A few examples of the brown glazed stoneware of Bunzlau in Silesia are 
exhibited in American museums, but it is doubtful whether the very character- 
istic Silesian stoneware produced at ^luskau toward the end of the seventeenth 
century can be found in an\' American collection outside of our own ^luseum. 
Two excellent examples which are shown in the accompanying illustration, one 
of which has recently been procured, are now on exhibition in the salt glaze 
stoneware section. The principal features of the JMuskau fabric are a thick, 
heav}-, dark blue glaze, which almost entirely covers the surface, and the 
rosettes or bosses in the form of human masks, etc., which have been separately 
moulded and applied. This decorative treatment is relieved by bands of im- 
pressed decoration produced by the use of small stamps. The forms of the 
tankards shown here suggest the influence of the Bunzlau potters, but the char- 



64 BULLETIN OF THE PEXXSYL\'ANL\ MUSEUM 

acter of the ware itself more strongly resembles that of the Westerwakl dis- 
trict, since it is grav in color where a glimpse of it can be seen in places not 
entirely covered by the heavy blue glaze or enamel. 

Each of the two tankards in the Museum's collection is mounted in pewter, 
both at top and bottom, and the lids are the original ones, undoubtedly attached 
when the pieces were made. They contain the initials of the original owners 
and are dated 1686 and 1689, respectively. 

It is only recently that students of German stonewares have been able to 
ascertain the existence of many minor centers of manufacture in that country. 
This w'ill account for the fact that examples of the seventeenth centurv ^^luskau 
wares whose origin has been traced by Dr. Otto von Falke. of Berlin, are as 
}et not figured in an}- of the ceramic works. 

Dr. Falke is of the opinion that the rude brown stoneware jugs wdth glis- 
tening, sandy glaze, dark blue reliefs and scratched decorations, which are 
variously labeled in Continental museums, "Lausitz", "Proskau", and "Siles- 
ian", are all probably of Muskau manufacture. 



NOTES 

The cover design for this number, designed and executed by ^Mabel R. 
Stauffer, a pupil of the School, was awarded the Mrs. J. L. Ketterlinus prize. 
at the Commencement in June last. 



The painted room from an eighteenth centur}- house in the Austrian T\rol, 
recently purchased, has been erected in one of the small rooms on the north 
side of the building, and is now on exhibition. 

During the summer the work of changing the fittings of the exhibition 
cases in the East Gallery has been pushed, and the contents of manv of the 
cases have been entirely rearranged, to the great improvement of the installa- 
tion. 



Four more cases have just been completed, two for the collections of sil- 
ver and watches, and two for the Bloomfield Moore room. 



School Xoti-:s — The regular day classes of the School, in all de])artments, 
opened for the new school year on JNIonday morning, September 30th, the 
evening classes a week later. Prospects for the season are very encouraging, 
and the changes and alterations made in the building during the summer will 
make for increased convenience and efficiencv. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANL\ MUSEUM 65 

The most notable improvement in tlie building is the new studio for the 
Illustration class, which has been fitted up, and equipped with a large sk3'light, 
through the liberality of the Associate Committee of Women. The buildings 
have been overhauled throughout and painted by the School's own force. 

Through the resignation of INIr. Barker the School loses a devoted and 
efficient instructor whose place it will be difficult adequately to fill. He has 
been compelled to give up his work here owing to pressure of other duties. 

The principal change in the Art Department is in the course of illustra- 
tion. Mr. ^^'alter Hunt Everett, the instructor in charge, will further develop 
the strictly professional character of the work by practical training which the 
arranging and fitting up of new quarters has made possible. A large general 
class room has been prepared (the Associate Committee of Women contributing 
the funds ). and a smaller one for advanced students, who will use it as a private 
studio, quite as they would in their professional commissions for publishers. 
The decorative character of the themes and treatment will be emphasized. 

Another important change has been made in the modeling department by 
the revival of the use of salt glazed stoneware as a material for effective, sim- 
ple forms of turned and decorated ware, the decoration being chiefly incised, 
or carved in very low relief, flatly painted ornaments, and animals. Vigorous 
studies made at the Zoological Gardens have been etched upon the surface, and 
cobalt, white, and tones of brown used to develop the designs. The salt glaze 
permits the minutest lines to be shown. The sgraffito work, in two superim- 
posed colored clays, has been further advanced, and these two types of ware 
will be the special features of the season. 

The experiments of INIr. Spear during the summer were made possible 
through the generosity of j\Ir. Jenks, and iNIr. Morris, and give the most im- 
portant results for a school product that have so far been obtained in this 
Department, and it is hoped will form a satisfactory contrast to the rather pre- 
tentious elYorts of many of the craftsmen who afTect either the extreme "primi- 
tive'" — or pronounced "art nouveau" in these days. Large decorative vases for 
conservatories, with figures modeled in high relief ; tiles and candlesticks for 
mantelpieces, are in process. The hard surface and impervious texture, which 
even acids will not affect, produce a brilliant effect in the play of artificial light. 
Miss Calev, who distinguished herself last year by her very clever studies of 
animals, has developed a most decorative method of handling, a highly con- 
ventional interpretation giving all the spirit of the living subject. To provide 
the inspiration which attainment gives, Mrs. James Mifflin has purchased and 
presented two of the most important of the large vases by Galileo Oiini, who 
revived this work in Italy. One of these examples is designed in the Byzan- 
tine, and one in the Persian style, both showing the same facility and invention 
in the handling of ornaments and materials. The cement and garden pottery 
will also have a larger place in the course. 

Mr. Barker, j\ir. ]\Iertz, Mr. Nacke, and Mr. Volkniar will not be in the 
facultv this season. For the present all the work in metal (except wrought 
ironj is under Air. Andrade, who. besides the regular subjects required in the 
Normal Art Class, will develop the silver and enameling, so successfully begun 
last vear. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 
ACCESSIONS 

July— September. 1912 



CLASS 



Books 



Ceramics 



turniture 
Glass 



AlETALWdRK 



Musical 
Instruments 



Silver 



Textiles 



Miscellan- 
eous 



OBJECT 



HOW ACQUIRED 



^Lent by Dr. Edwin AtLee Barber. 



"Das Kleine Psalterspiel der Kinder Zions," 
Published by Christoph Saur, Germantown, Pa., 
1/77 Given by Mr. Martin Way. 

2 Stoneware Mugs, Grenzhausen District, Ger- 
many, Early 19th Century 

Pottery Plaque, Sgraffito Decoration, Germany, 
Late iSth Century 

Mug, Delft, Holland, iSth Century 

Slip-Decorated Pottery Dish, England, c. iSoo, 

14 Pottery Tiles, Spanish and Belgian (nven by Mr. Karl J. Freund. 

Pottery \'ase, Modeled Decoration, By Louis C. 

Tiffany Given by Mr. John T. Morris. 

Salt Glazed Stoneware Tankard, Grenzhausen"^ 

District, Germany, Late 17th Century Mlought — Special Museum Fund. 

Pottery Plaque, Holland, 1 76S J 

Cream ware Pitcher with Black Printed Decora-"^ 

tion, Liverpool, England, c. iSoo M'.ought — 

Pottery Pie Plate, Switzerland, c. 1825 J 

Bracket Clock, Holland, 17th Century Bought — Special Museum Fund. 

16 Pieces of Old American Glassware ^ 

Glass Bottle, Babylonian /"Lent by Dr. Edwin AtLee Barber. 

15 Millefiori Glass Paper Weights, American .... J 

Favrile Glass Vase, by Louis C. Tiffany Lent by Mrs. Edwin AtLee Barber. 

6 Favrile Glass Vases, by Louis C. Tiffany Bought — Joseph E. Temple Trust. 

4 Brass Door Knockers, American, 19th Century Bought — Special Museum Fund. 
Iron Stove Plate, Made at the Elizabeth Fuinace Bought — 

Barrel Organ. Made by Astor, London, c. 17S0.. B.ought — Special Museum Fund. 

A. r.urnettO 



Silver Sugar Bowl. ^lade by C 

American, 1 9th Century 

Pair of Silver Sugar Tongs, Made by R. Xixon, 

American 

2 Silver Spoons, .Vmerican. c. 1750 



* B.ought — Special Museum Fund. 



Diplomatic Lhiiform, Style of 1840 Lent by Mrs. D. C. F. Rivinus 

Embroidered Coat, French, Period of Louis X\'I ] 



Livery Coat, French, Early igtli Century. 
S Samplers, Dated 1677, 1701, 1789, 1780. 



Bought — Special Museum Fund. 



r.ouglu- 



6 Sheets of Old \\'ater-Marked Paper Given by Mrs. C. Shillard-Smith. 

Collection of 0\i\ I'lirniturc Stencils Lent by the Dyke Mill. Montague. 

Mass. 



66 



P E N N S Y LVA NIA MUSEUM 

AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 



MUSEUM COMMITTEE 



JoHM Story Jenks, Chairman 
Thomas Skelton Harrison 
John H. McFadden 
JiuiN D. MlIlhennv 
John T. Morris 
John W. Pepper 
Edgar V. Seeler 



Edward T. Stotesbory 

Mrs. W. T. Carter 

Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth 

Miss Fannie S. Magee 

Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts 

Mrs. John Harrison, Ex Officio 

Miss Anna Blanchard, Honorary 

Edwin AtLee Barber, Director of the Museum 

Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson, Assistant Curator and Lecturer 



HONORANY CURATORS 

Te.xtilcs, I.ace and Embroidery Mrs. John Harrison 

Oriental Pottery Mrs. Jo.ves VVisier 

European Porcelain Rev. Alfred Duane Pell 

Arms and Armor Cornelius Stevenson 

Furniture and Woodwork Gustav Ketterer 

Musical Instruments Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth 

Prints, Book Plates and Historic Seals Charles E. Dana 

Numismatics F. D. Langenheim 

Sculpture, Marbles and Casts Alexander Stirling Calder 



INSTRUCTION COMMITTEE 



Theodore C. Search, Chairman 
Charles Bond 
Charles E. Dana 
Charles H. Harding 
Thomas Skelton Harrison 
John Story Jenks 
John D. McIlhexnv 
Edgar V. Seeler 
G. Henry Stetson 



Jones VVister 
William Wood 
Mrs. Rod.man B. Ellison 
Mrs. F. K. Hipple 
Mrs. Thomas Roberts 
Mrs. Joseph F. Sinnott 
Mrs. C. Shillard Smith 
Mrs. John Wister 
Mrs. Jones Wister 



Mrs. John Harrison, Ex Officio 



ASSOCIATE COMMITTEE OF WOMEN TO THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



PRESIOCNT 

Mrs. John Harrison 

SECRCTAflV 

Mrs. C. Shillard Smith 



VICC-PRCSIDCNT 



TREASURCR 

Mrs. Joseph F. Sinnott 



Mrs. Edwin Swift Balch 
Mrs. Rudolph Blankenburg 
Miss Louise W. Bodine 
Mrs. Jasper Veates Brinton 
Mrs. John H. Brinton 
Mrs. Willi.\m T. Carter 
Miss Margaret Clyde 
Miss Margaret L. Corlies 
Miss Ada M. Crozer 
Mrs. David E. Dallam 



Mrs. Rodman B. Ellison Miss 

Countess Santa Eulalia Mrs. 

Miss Cornelia L. Evving Mrs. 

Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth Mrs. 

Mrs. \V. W. Gibes Mrs. 

Mrs. C. Leland Harrison Miss 

Miss M. S. Hinchman Mrs. 

Mrs. F. K. Hipple Mrs. 

Mrs. J. L. Ketterlinus Mrs. 

Miss Nina Lea Mrs. 



Fannie S. Magee 
.Arthur V. Meigs 
James Mifflin 
Francis F. Milne 
John W. Pepper 
Elizabeth C. Roberts 
Thomas Roberts 
Cornelius Stevenson 
John Wister 
Jones Wister 



HONORARY MEMBERS 



Mrs. M. Hampton Todd 



Miss Anna Blanchard